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Kaziranga National Park - Land of Indian Rhinos

Kaziranga National Park

Kaziranga National Park in Golaghat District of Assam State in North-East India. Area lies in south bank of the Brahmaputra River. Kaziranga National  Park to get inscribed in the World Heritage Site List 1985. The Kaziranga National Park area consists of 429.93 Sq.Km and is administered by the State Government of Assam Forest Department under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972. It was first established as a reserve in 1908, a Game Sanctuary in 1916. Later it was declared as Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950. It is a natural habitat of world’s Great One-horned Rhinoceroses. About two-third of one-horned rhinoceros lives in Kaziranga forest. In addition to rhinos, the park has the world's largest population of Asiatic Water Buffalo (Bubalus arnee) which is more than 50% of total population. Similarly it is also known for healthy density of tigers in the protected reserve.  Kaziranga National Park is listed in the World Heritage Site List in the year of 1985. Kaziranga National Park lies in Place of Golaghat District of Assam. Park is geographically spread over Eastern Himalayas

How to reach Kaziranga National Park -
Kaziranga Park is best approachable from Guwahati city which is just 230kms/05:00hrs away from National Park. It is in eastward of Guwahati city. One can reach Kaziranga via National Highway No.37. Jorhat is another airport at a distance 90kms from Park. Regular taxi and bus services are available from Guwahati to Kaziranga national park. By rail, Jorhat station at a distance of 90kms, Furketing station at a distance of 75kms and Guwahati railway station at a distance of 220 kms are the best suitable options to access Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. Guwahati is well connected with all major cities of India like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata etc by various means of Transportation.

Kaziranga National Park is a world heritage UNESCO Site

Kaziranga National Park Kaziranga Fact File -

Kanha forest area was originally part of Gondwana kingdom. Gondwana kingdom was rulled by original tribes of Central India called Gonds. They rulled over Central India forests since many centuries. Still now also we can find them in almost all of the villages in and surrounding to Kanha National Park forest area. As per records, Kanha history can be traced back to year 1865 when western area of park was officially classified as Banjar valley reserve forest. Banjar & Hallon rivers are two major rivers passes through Kanha National Park. In year 1879, Kanha forest area was declared as reserve forest. In year 1953, Kanha National Park came into existence. In year 1970, Mukki valley forest was included in Kanha park by extending its boundary. Similarly in year 1974 Hallon valley and in 1983, Phen Wildlife Sanctuary was included in Kanha National Park. In year 1995, buffer zone was constituted.

Kaziranga National Park Location -
Kaziranga National Park lies in Kalibor subdivision of Nagaon district and Bokahat subdivision of Golaghat district. Kaziranga’s setting is on the low-lying (40-80mt.) floot plains of Brahmaputra River system. It is located in Indomalaya ecozone. Most of the region is flat, swampy ground and broad shallow pools fringed with reeds. Park area lies in south bank of Brahmaputra river and often faces flood problem every year. River Brahmaputra forms northern and eastern boundaries of park and Mora Diphlu forms southern boundary. The river Bhangra flows through the park in an east-west direction. Other important rivers are Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri. Park is approx. 40 km in length from east to west and 13 km in breadth from north to south. Kaziranga covers an area of 378 sq. km. An additional 429 sq. km. along the present boundary of park has been designated with separate national park status to provide corridor to safe movement of animals to Karbi Anglong Hills.

Kaziranga Weather & Climate Conditions -
The climate in Kaziranga is moderate with a mean annual rainfall of 2500mm during monsoon season which lies in May to October months of a year. The soils are chiefly of alluvial derived from river system. Here landscapes consists of sandbars, riverine flood-formed lakes, elevated regions etc. The vegetation is mainly of 4 types: Eastern Wet Alluvial Grasslands, Eastern Dellenia Swamp Forest, Riparian Fringing Forest, Assam alluvial Plains with semi-evergreen forest. Grasslands in Kaziranga forest occupies two-third (57%), Woodland (29%), Wetland (7%), Sand (7%)of the park area.

Kaziranga National Park Historical Facts -

In year 1904 when India was British colony, Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, the wife of Lord Curzon who was the Viceroy of India during that time, visited the area with expectation to find Rhinoceros in wilderness. She failed in her attempt to find even a single Rhino in the forest area. She realized the ongoing looming danger on one-horned rhinos population in local area. She urged her husband to take immediate measures to prevent rhinos population from extenction, in the region.
After the issue came into notice of Lord Curzon, who was the Viceroy of India during that time, in June 1, 1905, Kaziranga Reserve Forest was created having area of 232 sq. km. Park area was gradually increased by 152 in next three years.
In this year, Kaziranga becomes Reserve Forest. During this time conservation of One-horned Rhinoceros continues and later in 1916, it was declared as Game Sanctuary.
In this year, it was delcared as Game Sanctuary which means hunting was allowed during this time. It remained Game Sanctuary till 1938 during which hunting was allowed.
After 1938, game sanctuary was opened for general visitors and hunting was banned in the Reserve.
In year 1950, Kaziranga Game Sanctuary was renamed as Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary by forest conservationist P.D. Stracey.
After four years, in 1954 the Assam Bill was passed by Government of Assam with an intention to curb the poaching activities in Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary by imposing heavy penalties on poaching.
In 1968, the state government passed an Act called “The Assam National Park Act of 1968” in which wildlife sanctuary was upgraded in to Kaziranga National Park having area of 430 sq. km.
In February 11, 1974, Kaziranga got the official status of National Park by Central Government of India. During this time Kaziranga National Park registered dramatic recovery of One-horned Rhinoceros population in the forest and gained world-wide popularity.
In year 1983, Kaziranga registered illegally poaching of 33 rhinos in the forest.
In year 1985, Kaziranga was rewarded with status of World Heritage Site by UNESCO for having Great Indian One Horned Rhinoceros, Asiatic Wild Buffalo, Eastern Race of the Swamp Deer and its unique natural environment.
In year 2005, park celebrated completion of 100 years of Kaziranga reserve in which descendants of Lord Curzon were invited.
In year 2007, elephants and 2 rhinos were relocated to Manas National Park as an attempt to boost up their population in other nearby nature reserves also.

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