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Indian Wildlife

Indian Wildlife Tourism Wildlife of India is mixture of number of species spread over the corners of India. Tourists from different countries come to India to witness them in wilderness but among those species tiger tourism remain on priority. Those who have seen tigers in Indian forests remain highly satisfied. Apart from tiger their are other wildlife species like Asiatic Lion, Leopards, Wolves, One-horned Rhinoceroses, Wild Buffalo, Indian Gaur, Barasingha, Sambhar, Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Black Buck etc. Wild animal's protection its well being in India is taken care by Environment Ministry.

About 98 National Parks have been declared in India. The National Parks of India are IUCN category II protected areas. They are spread all over India. Jim Corbett National Park was the first one in India, established in year 1936. Here in India you can find more than 355 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 30 Tiger Reserves, 17 Biosphere Reserves spread all over India. Out of 17 Biosphere reserves, 7 of them are part of World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based onthe UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme list. Since India shelters many rare and threatened wildlife species, it is duty of every Indian to give its contribution in wildlife conservation and management for our coming generation.

India is lying within the Indomalaya eco-zone which is home of about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12/6% of avian, 6.2% of reptialian and 6% of flowering plant species. Overall 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. Forest is the second largest land use in India, next to agriculture. Forest cover of India is assessed to be as 67.83 million hectares which is 20.64% of country's geographical area, ranging from trophical rain-forest of Andamans, Western Ghats and North-east India to Himalayan forestry.

From Jammu & Kashmir to Tamil Nadu and from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh, India has huge geographical variations, according to which wildlife also vaires. Here we are trying to geographically divide India into 19 zones and try to specify wildlife of each zone accordingly:

Trans Himalaya: It covers eastern Jammu & Kashmir state and some area of Northern Himachal Pradesh.Location is spread across both banks of the Zanskar River, the Hemis High-altitude National Park lies in the Zanskar Range of the Great Himalaya in eastern Ladakh, on the west bank of the Indus. For sake of wildlife, here we can visit Hemis National Park which is a high altitude National Park declared in year 1981 having area of 3350 sq kms. Their are 4 entry points for park: Martseland, Chilling, Stok & Zingchan. Prime attractions are Snow Leopards, Ibex, Rec Fox, Lynx, Wild Sheep, Dholes etc. Best time to visit is December & January months. Being a high-altitude national park, it remains very cold in winters. It is among few national parks where trekking is allowed for visitors. In additions to this it also includes Changthang Cold Desert Wildlife Sanctuary spread over an area of 4000 sq.kms. at an altitude of 4266-5790 mts. Here you can some spectacular lakes view and birding. It is the only place where endangered black-necked crane breeds. In addition to this you can also find Ruddy Shelduck, water fowl etc.

Western Himalaya: This part of Himalaya covers portion of Jammu & Kashmir state, Himachal Pradesh and some areas of Uttarakhand state. It covers 03 National Parks & 01 Wildlife Sanctuary. Let us know about them one by one. First one is Dachigam National Park which lies in Kashmir valley of Jammu & Kashmir state. Park is divided into Upper & Lower Dachigam. Tourists can visit them from May to November for wildlife like Ibex, Musk Deer, Himalayan Black Bear, Hangul etc. This forest is scenic and also covers famous Dal lake region of Kashmir. It remain closed from Jan to April due to winters.Second one in Great Himalayan National Park which is spread over Himachal Pradesh state and remains open throughout the year. April - May is the best time to visit the park for snow leopards, tragopan, tahr etc. Park has 4 entry points Gushaini, Neuli, Siund Village & Barshaini. Pin Valley National Park is third national park that comes under Western Himalaya. It is located in north-east of Himachal Pradesh, close to Great Himalayan National Park. Its name is derived from Pin river that flows through some part of park but major river for park is Paraiho river. This national park is created in January 1987 with an area of 675 sq. kms. Best time to visit is April to May and November month when we can have sighting of Ibex, Snow leopards, Tibetan Wolf, blue Sheep etc.

World famous UNESCO World Heritage Site Nanda Devi National Park in Uttaranchal also comes under Western Himalaya. It was declared as World Heritage site in year 1998. Park is situated at a height of 7817 mtr. Nanda Devi peak. Park encompasses Valley of Flowers and Nanda Devi Bio-sphere Reserve also that makes it a World Heritage Site. The first explorers to step inside the inner sanctuary were Eric Shipton & H.W. Tilman who explored a route up to the Upper Rishi Ganga Gorde in year 1934. This place is holy for followers of Hindu religion. October & November are the best time to visit the site. Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand also comes under this category. It is about 35kms North-East from Almora. Best time to visit Binsar is Feb-Mar-Apr for mammals sighting & flowers photography. This sanctuary is good for Himalayan birds and some flora like Leopard (Panthera Pardus), Nemorhaedus goral (goral), Chital (Axis axis) Musk deer , Serow (Capricornis sumatiensis) , Jungle Cat (Felis chaus), Sus scrofa, Black Bear, pine marten,Fox (Vulpes vulpes), Porcupine, Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista),Barking Deer(Muntiacus muntjak) etc. with more than 200 birds species.

The Terai: It is the area of Uttarakhand State which is in western part of state, shivalik foothills of Himalaya and north of Indo-Gangetic plains. It is 200 Kms North-East to Delhi.The Terai belongs to the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. National parks like Rajaji, Corbett and Dudhwa National Park falls under this region which is well known for more than 500 bird species and 60 mammals species including tigers, leopards, sloth bear, spotted deer, wild boar, jungle cat, stripped hyena, wild dogs etc. Terai belt includes marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests. Among them Jim Corbett National Park is the first National Park of India and has unique place in wildlife of India.

Punjab Plains: The Punjab Plain is an alluvial plain in covering north-west of India and some parts of neighboring country Pakistan. The plain is spread over an area of 35000 sq. kms. including the Pakistani province of Punjab and Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. The plain is extensively farmed for cereals and cotton. These plain are formed by the Indus River and its tributaries. It covers Harike wetlands of Pong dam back-water area. Harike wetland is in Punjab state on barrage at confluence of Beas & Stulej rivers at Harike Pattan. This wetland has great potential quiet similar to Keoladeo National Park. Best time for bird watching here is from November to March birds from Siberia, China, Pakistan, Afganistan etc. comes here. ABout 360 bird species recorded here. Pong Dam Wetland or Maharana Pratap Sagar is created on Beas river in year 1975. It lies on wetland zone of Shivalik hills in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh state. Beas river is among 5 major rivers of Indus basin. The large reservoir area attracts migratory birds from Central Asian countries. Here about 225 birds species have been recorded. Both of theses places makes punjab palins as important birding sites in Indian wildlife.

Eastern Himalaya: It is the part of Himalaya that passes through North-Eastern states of India namely West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam along with neighboring countries like Nepal, Myanmar,Tibet etc. Wildlife destinations it covers in India are: Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary, Gorumara National Park, Singalila National Park, Senchan Wildlife Sanctuary, Darjeeling, Khangchendzonga National Park, Barsey RhododendronSanctuary and Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary etc. These wildlife destinations most of the tea estates, rhino lands, tiger reserve, birding sites etc. Among them Jaldhapara WLS was established in 1941. Singalila National Park was declared in 1992 with an area of 78.60 sq. km. Here Himalayan Palm Civet is a rare species to see along with trekking & camping. Khangchendzonga National Parkis also a Biosphere reserve located in northern part of Sikkim state of Indian territory. Park name is derived from Khanchendzonga mountain which is third highest mountain in the world. Park was established in August 26 in year 1977 with Biosphere reserve. Animals commonly seen in Khangchendzonga national park are: Musk deer, Snow Leopard and Himalayan Tahr, Barking Deer, Wild Dog, Civet, Tibetan Wild Ass, Himalayan Black Bear and rare Red Panda.

Brahmaputra Basin: Brahmaputra river is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra. It is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia. Its origin is from south-west of Tibet and flows into India from Arunachal Pradesh state where it is called Dihang. From Arunachal Pradesh it enters into Assam state and later goes to Bangladesh. Important national parks that comes under Brahmaputra Basin are Manas National Park, Orang National Park, Kaziranga, Nameri National Park and Namdapha National Park. All these national park are of great potential for Bird watching and rare mammal species like One-horned Rhinos, Hoolock Gibbons, Water Buffalo, East-Indian Barasingha, Tigers, Leopards etc. Among specified national parks, 02 are UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Manas & Kaziranga. They both have their unique place in Indian wildlife.

Desert Region: It is also known as Great Indian Desert, part of Thar Desert is located in North-West of India, in Rajasthan and some parts of Haryana & Punjab states. It is a arid region forming the country border with Pakistan and is 9th largest subtropical desert. Sambhar Salt Lake, Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary & Desert National Park comes under this region. They all are in Rajasthan state. Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary is in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan covering area of 578 sq.kms. Its wildlife attractions are Chausingha (4-horned antelope), Nilgai (Bluebull), Sloth Bear, Jungle Cat, Hyena, Sambhar, Chinkara etc. Similarly Briding is also good in this region. Sambharsalt Lake is about 96kms from Jaipur and is more a holy place for Hindus. Its reference came in hindu epic Mahabharata so often used during local fairs like Gangaur, Dushera etc. Now Desert National Park is close to Jaisalmer in Rajasthan which is yet another popular tourist destination of state. National Park covers 3162 sq.kms. area and offers shelter to large number of migratory & residential birds like buzzards, Kestrel, Vultures, Harriers, Short-toed Eagles, Spotted Eagles, Great Indian Bustards etc. In addition to this here we can find fair number of Black bucks, Desert cats, Chinkara, Bengal Fox, Desert Fox etc. This region is also rich in Dinosaurs fossils.

Chambal Aravalli: It covers the region associated with Aravalli ranges and Chanbal ravines. Here mostly North-Central India regions are covered. In this region we covers Sultanpur National Park, Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Sariska National Park, Ranthambhore National Park and Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary. Among them Sultanpur, Keoladeo Ghana & Chambal Sanctuaries are counted among the best places in India for Birding. Keoladeo-Ghana is a World Heritage Site. Sariska & Ranthambhore National Parks are popular tiger reserves in Rajasthan. As these destinations are close to Delhi & Agra so they remain populated with tourists throughout the year.

Central India: Central India is the region falls in Madhya Pradesh state that covers Panna National Park, Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve and Kanha National Park. They are spread over Vindhya & Satpura ranges which are densely forested and nestles rich flora & fauns of Central India. Panna National Park is in Chattarpur & Panna districts of Madhya Pradesh and spread over Vindhya hills & terrains. It covers 542.67 sq.kms. areas with 30 mammal species and more than 200 birds species. Ken river is the main river source of park in which Ken Gharial Reserve is also their. Being close to Khajuraho, it is a popular tourist attractions. At present, tiger rehabilitation program is successfully going on in Panna Tiger Reserve. Poaching is the a main problem of this park. Here in Panna, almost 6 species of vultures are present. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve is a world famous tiger reserve in Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh state where White tigers of India were found in past. It is very popular for high tiger density due to which visited by thousands of tourists from all over the world.It is spread over Vindhya hills and open from October to June for visitors. Till 1968 it was a private game reserve. During safari, we can still find here marks of history like fort, temple, stables, man-made caves, statues of Hindu gods, treasury, water-wells etc. It is said to be good place for tiger-photography. Kanha National Park is spread over Satpura-Maikal ranges in Mandla & Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh. It is a great wildlife reserve known for successful conservation history of hard-ground Barasingha. In addition to this we can easily found here Wild Dogs, Indian Gaurs, Tigers, Leopards, Spotted deer, Chousingha, Jungle Cat etc. More than 200 bird species are found in Kanha National Park.

North Deccan: The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau lies in south of Indo-Gangetic plain. located between 3 mountain ranges: Western Ghat in West, Eastern Ghats in East and Satpura with Vindhya ranges in North. Climate in the region varies from semi-arid in north to tropical moist. Most of its rivers flows from North to South except Narmada & Tapti. North Deccan geographical region covers Melghat Tiger Reserve, Pench National Park and Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve. Among them Melghat Tiger Reserve is located in Southern offshores of Satpura Hills range at Amravati district in Maharashtra state of Central India. These hills are called Gavilgarh hills. It was notified as tiger reserve in year 1973-74. Tapi river is the main water source in forest. It covers an area of 2029.04 sq.km. area. Fauna species found here are 80 mammals, 263 birds, 54 reptiles and 08 amphibians found here. Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve is another popular tiger reserve in Chandrapur district of Maharashtra state. It is a important tiger reserve of state known for good tiger sighting record. It covers an area of 625.40 sq.kms. area and tiger reserve was created in year 1995. Inside the park we can also find Tadoba lake where Muggar crocodiles are also present. Tadoba reserve covers Chimur hills and Andhari sanctuary covers Moharli & Kolsa ranges.It has southern tropical dry deciduous forest with trees of Haldu, Salai, Semal, Tendu, Bija, Hirda, Mahua etc. Prominent mammals are tiger, leopards, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Cheetal, Chausingha, Nilgai, Gaur etc. More than 195 Bird species in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve makes it ornithologist's paradise. Mining is the big threat to this park. Pench National Park is the actual Mogli land of Rudyard Kipling's classic "The Jungle Book". Pench Tiger Reserve is spread around Pench river covering areas in both Maharashtra & Madhya Pradesh state. But its main area is in Madhya Pradesh state at Seoni District covering area 292.85 sq.kms. Turia, Karmajhiri, Gumtara are the entrance gates for park in which Turia is the most important one for Pench Jungle Safari. It has highest density of Herbivores animals along with predators like Tiger, Leopard, Sloth bear etc. Total Tiger Reserve area is 757.89 sq.kms.

East Coast: East coast of India covers southern West Bengal with South-East Orissa state. Wildlife reserves covered under this geographical region are World Heritage Sunderban National Park, Simlipal Tiger Reserve, Bhitarkanika National Park, Chilika Lagoon ans Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary. Sunderban Tiger Reserve is a UNESCO World Heritage Site covering area of India & Bangladesh. It is a delta of dense mangrove forest on confluence of Ganges,Padma, Brahmaputra & Meghna rivers on Bay of Bengal. Forest covers 10000 sq. kms area. In year 1997 it was declared World Heritage Site. It is popular for man-eating tigers. Here tigers are very good swimmers. In addition to tiger, here we can find mammals like spotted deer, wild boar etc about 40 other mammal species with 14 reptile species. It is the meeting point of fresh water & salt water. About 335 plant species have been recorded in Sunderbans. Simlipal National Park is a popular elephant reserve in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa state in India. It is spread over an area of 845.70 sq.kms and was established in year 1980. It was originally a elephant reserve and in 1973 become under Project Tiger. Here in Biosphere we can find 1075 species of plants, 42 mammals, 240 birds and 30 speices of reptiles. Here "Mugger Crocodile Management Programme" is also going on for their betterment on the bank of Khairi river.Bhitarkanika National Park is a mangrove wetland in Orissa state of India covering 650sq.km. area on delta of Brahmani & Baitarani rivers. Out of 78 known mangrove species, 71 of them are found in Bhitarkanika. Its core area is of 145 sq.kms. which is known as Bhitarkanika National Park in 1998. It shelters one of the largest population of giant Salt-water crocodiles. Here Gahirmatha Beach which separates mangroves from Bay of Bengal is breeding beach of Olive Ridley Sea Turtles that makes it most important beach in world. About 215 birds species are found here including 8 different species of Kingfishers. 22 Species of mammals can be seen here like Sambar, Wild boar, Jungle Cat, Stripped Hyaena, Smooth Coated Indian Otter, Percupine, Shortnosed Fruit Bat, Indian Pipistrelle, House Shrew etc. Chilka Lake is a brackish water lagoon covering Puri, Khurda & Ganjam districts of Orissa state at the mouth of Daya river in east coast of India. It is largest wintering ground for migratory birds (160 species) on Indian sub-continent. Birds comes here from Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, South-East Asia, Russia, Kirghiz Steppes, Aral sea etc. Lagoon is also home of 14 types of raptors also and 135 rare irrawaddy Dolphins, 37 species of reptiles & amphibians also. The catchment area of lake has sand, rock, and mud substratum.Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary is a tiger reserve in Orissa state covering about 988 sq.kms. area. This sanctuary is also a gorge. It got its name derived from word "Sat" means seven and "Kosh" means two miles. The gorge has Chottanagpur plateau in north and Eastern Ghats in south. It is rich in bio-diversity.

West Coast: It covers mainly western coastal line of Gujarat state with North-west of Maharashtra state that faces Arabian sea. Wildlife areas covered under this west coast are: Velavadar National Park, Little Rann of Kutch, Gir National Park and Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Here Velavadar National Park is also called Blackbuck national park located in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat state in Western India. It was established in year 1976 with an area of 34.08 sq.kms. area in south-west of state. In addition to Blackbucks, we can also find wold, lesser Florican (Bustard), foxes, Jackals, Jungle Cats etc. as other commonly seen species in flat dry grasslands of national park. Here park is in semi-arid conditions. This park remains closed for visitors from middle June to middle October. Little Rann of Kutch is a sanctuary established in year 1973, spread over 5 districts Surendranagar, Banaskantha, Patan, Kutch and Rajkot. It is a salt marsh and world's last refuge of Indian Wild Ass for conservation purpose. Other wildlife attractions of Rann of Kutch are migratory waterbirds like spot-billed ducks, pelicans, flamingoes, sand grouse etc., Desert fox and Nilgai. Gir National Park is a unique wildlife sanctuary established in year 1965, covering area of 1412 sq.kms. for conservation of Asiatic Lions. It is the last habitat of lions in Asia. Here we can find 400 plant species, 38 mammal species, 300 bird species and more than 37 species of reptiles. It remains open for visitors from middle October to middle June and remains closed during monsoon season. Here Lion sighting is very easy in compare to Tigers in Tiger Reserves.

Western Ghats: It is the mountain range runs from North to South along western edge of Deccan Plateau. It separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian sea. This range starts from Gujarat - Maharashtra border, south of Tapti river and goes southwards till Kanyakumari. It is 1600 Kms in length covering states Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Wildlife covered under Western Ghat includes Mollem National Park, Anshi National Park, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary.

Mollem National Park is established in year 1978 and spread over an area of 240 sq.kms. in South of Goa, close to Karnataka border. Prominent mammal attractions are Bengal Tiger, Leopard, Wild Boar, Dholes, Malabar giant squirrel, Mouse Deer, Indian Gaur, Flying Squirrel, Sambar etc. Bird attractions are Greater Indian Hornbill, Indian Black Woodpecker, White-cheeked barbet, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Malabar Parakeet, Nilgiri woodpigeon, White-bellied Blue, Golden Oriole etc. Here we can find 120 bird species out of which 17 are endemic ones. Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve are declared as Project Tiger Reserve in 2007 and have an protected area of 2200 sq.kms. The park is in North-Western Ghats montane rain forests & moist deciduous forests. Forest have high biodiversity. Their Flora includes Malabar tamarind, Machilus, Carallia, Blackboard tree, Calophyllum etc. It has more than 22 mammal species and over 200 bird species. Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary is in North Karnataka state. It has more than 300 birds species and prominent mammals found here are Black Panthers, Leopards, Tigers, Asiatic Elephants, Indian Gaur, Deer, Antelopes, Sloth Bear, Wild Dogs etc. It is second largest wildlife sanctuary of Karnataka state.

Nilgiri Biosphere: It is actually a part of Western Ghats under separate title. It covers 5670 sq.kms area and was set up in 1986 as the first Biosphere Reserve in India. It has 3700 plant species and 684 vertebrate species that are registered among which several hundreds of plants are medicinal plants. It is stretched over 3 states: Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. It covers Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarhole National Park, Bandipur-madumalai National Parks, BR Hills Wildlife Sanctuary and Silent Valley National Park.

Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Coorg district of Western Ghats area in South India. It is on Karnataka-Kerala border with some evergreen and some semi-evergreen forest area. Prominent mammal attractions includes: Indian Gaur, Tiger, Leopards, Wild Dogs, Bonnet Macaque, Common Langur, Mouse Deer, Elephants, Slender Loris, Malabar Giant Squirrel, Giant Flying Squirrel etc. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is in Wayanad Kerala. It is second largest wildlife sanctuary in Kerala state and was established in 1973. It is integral part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. It covers 344 sq.kms. area. Its prominent mammal attractions are: Asiatic Elephants, Tigers, Leopards, Indian Gaurs, Civet cats, Jungle Cats, Dholes, Sloth Bear etc. Nagarhole National Park is in Kodagu & Mysore districts of Karnataka State. It covers 643 sq.kms. area and become national park in year 1983. About 39 mammals and 270 bird species have been recognized in this park. It is just close to Bandipur National Park. Bandipur-Madhumalai Wildlife Sanctuary is actually two wildlife sanctuaries in which Bandipur is in Karnataka and Madumalai is in Tamil Nadu state. They both are only separated by Moyar river from Karnataka. Bandipur is a popular Project Tiger Reserve in wildlife of India with an area of 874 sq.kms and have more than 38 mammals including tigers, leopards, Barking Deer, Bonnet Macaque, Ruddy Mongose, Indian Giant Squirrel, Wild Boar etc.Madumalai Sanctuary is established in year 1940 with an area of 321 sq.kms. Here we can find more than 265 bird species and 35 or more mammals including tigers, elephants & gaurs. Silent Valley National Park is located in Palakkad district of Kerala state. It is in south-west corner of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in Kundali hills of Western Ghats. Its core area is 236.74 sq.kms. and was first explored by botanist Robert Wright. Due to absence of common Cicaca in national park,it is called Silent Valley National Park. It was established in 26 December 1980. Park is in trophical & sub-trophical moist broadleaf forest eco-region. Here we can find 35 species of mammals & 150 birds species.

Southern Ghats: It covers the south-western ghats area of India comprising Western Ghats range in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These ghats are at an elevation of 1000 meters and are more cooler & Wetter than lower elevation South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests. This eco region is home of numerous endemic species. Here climate is cool, moist and receives high rainfall. Places to visit in this region are Parambikulam Sanctuary, Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and Periyar Tiger Reserve.

Parambikulam Sanctuary is spread over an area of 285 sq.kms. in Kerala state whose prime attractions are wild Elephants, Gaurs, Tigers. Leopards etc with more than 260 Birds species. It is home of 4 tribes: Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar & Mala Malasar. Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary is in Tamil Nadu state and was established in October 1961. Here prime attractions are Lion-tailed Macaque, Wild Elephants, Nilgiri Tahr, Leopards, Nilgiri Langurs, Dholes, Brown Mongoose, Rusty spotted Cat etc with 39 mammal species, 25 reptiles, 250 bird species. It is adjacent to Parambikulam sanctuary. Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary is established in 1984 with an area of 85.06 sq. kms in Mukundapuram Taluk of Thrissur District of Kerala state in India. It has tropical evergreen, semi-evergreen forest with 192 bird species with 5 endemic bird species Grey-headed Bulbul, Indian Rufous Babbler, White-bellied blue Flycatcher,Ceylon Frogmouth and Indian Edible-nest Swiftlet etc. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is also known as Thattekkad sanctuary. Its name Salim Ali is derived from eminent Indian ornithologist. It is spread over an area of 25.16 sq. kms. area in foothills of Western Ghat in Kerala state. It is 74Kms. from Kochhi. It can be visited throughout the year except in monsoon season (July to August). It is good for birds & butterflies sighting. Dr. Salim Ali has described it as one of the richest birds habitat on peninsular India. Here we can find almost 300 bird species like Indian Pitta, Black-headed Orioles, Treepies,Sepoy Bulbul, Grey Jungle fowl, Malabar Pied Hornbill, Grey Headed Fishing Eagles etc. Evavikulam National Park is located in Idukki district of Kerala state in Western Ghats. It is declared as National Park in year 1978 with an area of 97 sq. Kms. to protect Nilgiri Tahr which is the prime attraction with 25 other mammal species. Periyar Tiger Reserve is a popular National Park in Idukki & Pathanamthitta districts of Kerala state of India. It covers an area of 925 sq.kms. and was declared in year 1982. It is spread over Cardamom hills & Pandalam hills of Western Ghats in State border of Kerala & Tamil Nadu. Here we can find 60 mammals & 320 bird species.

Coromandel Coast: It is the name given to South-Eastern coast of Indian Sub-continent. It covers south-east of Karnataka & Tamil Nadu states. Here the coastal area is generally low and punctuated by deltas of several large south-Indian rivers like Kaveri, Penner, Palar & Krishna which flows across Deccan Plateau and drain to Bay on Bengal. Famous Vedanthankal Lake Bird Sanctuary lies in Coromandel Coast. It is spread over 73 Acres of land in North-East of Tamil Nadu state. It is about 75Kms from Chennai city. It is a home of popular migratory birds like Brahminy Kite, Short toed Snake eagles, Eurasian Marsh Harriers, Grey Wagtail, Blue Winged Teal, Grey Pelican, Open-billed Storks, Pin tailed Duck, Pintail, Garganey etc. The Barringtonia mangroves of the sanctuary creates a floating habitat for a variety of migratory birds. Birds come here from countries like Australia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Russia etc. It is close from Mahabalipuram & Kanchipuram.

Cauvery Basin: Cauvery or Kaveri is a large South-Indian river that originates from Talakaveri, Kodagu in Western Ghats in Karnataka state and flows in south direction towards Tamil Nadu state and falls in Bay of Bengal. Kaveri basin is of about 27700 sq.kms. with its tributaries like Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Honnuhole, Tirtha, Lakshmana, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani etc rivers. Bannerghatta National Park lies at this basin in Karnataka state. It is about 23Kms South of Bangalore city. It is a Zoological reserve where we can see Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Wild Boar etc, butterflies and bird species. It is spread over an area of 25000 acres of land and managed by KSTDC (Karnataka State Tourism Development Cooperation). Trekking can also be enjoyed here. Tuesday closed for visitors.

Marine Parks: This covers Andaman & Nicobar Islanda along with Lakshadweep Islands. Although they are not directly linked with main land of India but are important part of India. Lakshadweep are collection of about 36 islands in Arabian Sea covering 32 sq.kms. area. These islands are Union Territories. Fishing & tourism are the main occupation of local residents of these islands. Similarly Andaman & Nicobar islands are also collection of about 572 small & large islands in Bay of Bengal that remained inaccessible till may years. Later in British Era Cellular Jail was made their. Now a day they are known for beach tourism and crystal clear water.

Other Parks:

Trans Himalaya:

Trans Himalaya: